Scientific Outline and General Schedule: The excursion will focus on ground water in unconsolidated and crystalline rocks in dramatic terrains with high topographic relief. The groundwater conditions are characterized by rapid ground water flow in unconsolidated coarse grained deposits and fracture flow in bedrock controlled by lineament architecture and in-situ topographic and tectonic stresses.
Day 1: We start the excursion in Bergen at 7 pm with a visit to the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Bryggen" (www.stiftelsenbryggen.no). Here, drainage around a new-built hotel lowers the groundwater level and leads to decay of old buried wooden structures and thus ground subsidence. This stop will focus on ground water modelling and measures taken to prevent the damage.Day 2: The first stop is the small community of Stamnes where drilling of water wells for water supply was unsuccessful in spite of distinct fractures systems and positive geophysical indications. We combine our next stop at Voss waterworks with a lunch. Voss waterworks is situated close to the village and is under pressure due to different land use interests. First stop after lunch is Osa, which is situated in a narrow valley at the end of the Hardangerfjord. Here, unconsolidated quaternary valley-fill deposits are enclosed by steep mountain slopes reaching heights of about 1400 metres above sea level.
Two different aquifers are found in the quaternary deposits. Different user interests exist in the area; municipal water supply and a bottling plant for mineral water. A ground water model will be explained focusing on the different user interests and the interaction between surface and ground water. The mineral water bottling plant Isbre (Glacier) will also be visited (www.isbre.com).
Overnight stay is at Stalheim Hotel (www.stalheim.com), an old and famous tourist hotel with a magnificent view of the Nærøy valley.
Day 3: The day starts with a two hour boat trip on the UNESCO fjord "Nærøyfjord" (departure from Gudvangen at eight o'clock in the morning) and further across the Sognefjord to Sogndal. Groundwater in crystalline rocks in areas of extreme topographic relief will be the main theme of the day. In addition we will visit springs in unconsolidated deposits at the foot of steep valley sides. There will also be opportunities to visit the Norwegian Glacier Museum in Fjærland and Astruptunet - the home of the Norwegian painter Nicolai Astrup, with the collection of his art.
Overnight stay is at Førde.
|Day 4: This last day the focus is on various aspects of groundwater in fractured crystalline rocks. In the Førde- area we visit a major fracture lineament and discuss groundwater flow in relation to lineament architecture. A landfill is situated in the lineament, and ground water protection due to natural and man made protection barriers will be discussed. After lunch we continue towards the coast to Holmedal, a research well-site designed a.o. to study the effects of in-situ stresses on groundwater flow in crystalline rocks. At Askvoll, close to Holmedal, we leave the bus, and return to Bergen by express boat. Arrival in Bergen is at eight o'clock pm.