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Excursion route: Oslo - Laxemar-Simpevarp (Oskarshamn) - Stockholm - Turku - Olkiluoto - Rauma - Turku - Stockholm - Forsmark - Arlanda airport, Stockholm



Day 1: Travel by bus from Oslo, Norway to the Laxemar-Simpevarp site, Sweden (close to Oskarshamn). Overview of site investigation work at Laxemar-Simpevarp and Forsmark in Sweden and introduction to the geology of the Laxemar-Simpevarp site, followed by dinner and overnight accommodation at a guest house in the Laxemar-Simpevarp area.

Day 2: Breakfast at the guest house. Visit to field localities at the Laxemar-Simpevarp site. Presentation of the 3-D geological models for the Laxemar-Simpevarp site. Breakfast, dinner and overnight accommodation at the guest house. Lunch at a field locality.

Day 3: Breakfast at the guest house followed by a visit to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (underground) and an inspection of cored borehole sections. Lunch. Travel by bus from Laxemar-Simpevarp to Stockholm. Travel by night boat from Stockholm to Turku. Presentation of an overview of the site investigation work in Finland and an introduction to the geology of the Olkiluoto site, followed by dinner on the boat.

Day 4: Breakfast on the boat. Travel by bus from Turku to Olkiluoto. Visit to field localities at the Olkiluoto site. Lunch. Visit to the ONKALO facility (underground), an inspection of some field localities close to the ONKALO facility and a presentation of the 3-D geological models for the Olkiluoto site. On account of the arrangements in the ONKALO tunnel, the participants will be divided into three groups that will rotate with each other during the afternoon of Day 4. Dinner and overnight accommodation in Rauma.

Day 5: Breakfast at hotel in Rauma. Visit to field localities in the Pori-Rauma area. Lunch. Continued visit to field localities and then travel to Turku. Travel by night boat from Turku to Stockholm. Dinner on the boat.

Day 6: Breakfast on the boat. Travel by bus from Stockholm to Forsmark. Introduction to the geology of the Forsmark site. Visit to some field localities. Lunch at a field locality followed by visit to more localities. Presentation of the 3-D geological models for the Forsmark site, followed by dinner and accommodation at a guest house in the Forsmark area.

Day 7: Breakfast at the guest house. Visit to field localities at the Forsmark site and inspection of cored borehole sections. Lunch at the guest house. Travel by bus to Uppsala and Arlanda international airport.

Cost estimate: A part of the travel costs and the dinner at Rauma will be paid for by the sponsoring companies Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) and Posiva AB, respectively. It is estimated that the remaining travel, meals and accommodation costs during the 7-day excursion, as mentioned in the description of logistics above, will be 925 euro. This cost estimate is based on the participation of 20 excursion members and should be paid for by each participant. The participants should have both euros and Swedish crowns with them, in order to purchase lunch and other refreshments, for example, during the long bus trip during day 1.

Scientific content: The following presents a brief scientific outline of the geology to be presented on each day. The individuals responsible for the preparation of the excursion guide and the local leadership on each day are also shown.

Day 1 (morning and afternoon): Travel from Oslo to Laxemar-Simpevarp (Oskarshamn), Sweden.

Day 2 and day 3 (morning): Well-preserved, 1.80 Ga intrusive igneous activity (Trans-Scandinavian Igneous Belt) in the tectonic segment south of the Loftahammar(Linköping Deformation Zone (LLDZ) in the south-westernmost part of the Fennoscandian Shield, compositional complexity related to magma mingling/mixing relationships and implications for the thermal properties of the bedrock, character and kinematics of discrete, low-temperature ductile shear zones active around 1.80 Ga, post-tectonic 1.45 Ga intrusive igneous activity at high crustal levels, Neoproterozoic dolerites, probable multi-stage reactivation of deformation zones in the brittle regime and implications for the hydrogeological characteristics of the site. The geology will be illustrated with the help of visits to several outcrops and well-exposed trenches at the surface, a visit to the underground Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory and a study of some representative cored borehole sections (Carl-Henric Wahlgren and Carljohan Hardenby).

Day 3 (afternoon): Travel from Laxemar-Simpevarp (Oskarshamn) to Stockholm.

Days 4 and 5: Heterogeneous complex of migmatitic metasedimentary, metavolcanic and meta-intrusive rocks, with multiple phases of anatexis, deformation and intrusion between 1.88 and 1.80 Ga, southwest of the central Finland granitoid complex in the central part of the Fennoscandian Shield, intrusion of anorogenic rapakivi granites at 1.58 to 1.55 Ga, Mesoproterozoic, c. 1.40 Ga alluvial sandstones preserved in a NW-SE graben and bounded by normal faults, intrusion of olivine-bearing dolerites at 1.27 to 1.25 Ga. The geology will be illustrated with the help of visits to several outcrops and well-exposed trenches at the surface and a visit to the underground ONKALO facility (Jussi Mattila, Seppo Paulamäki and Kimmo Kemppainen).

Day 6 and day 7 (morning): 1.89 to 1.85 Ga igneous activity representative of the Bergslagen metal-rich province in the south-western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, amphibolite-facies deformation along ductile high-strain belts between 1.87 and 1.86 Ga, contrasting character of the ductile strain inside a tectonic lens and along the boundary high-strain belts, ductile reactivation along more discrete zones under greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions after  1.85 Ga, character of different sets of brittle deformation zones and implications for the hydrogeological characteristics of the site, contrasting fracture domains with depth and relationship to the present stress regime. The geology will be illustrated with the help of visits to several outcrops at the surface, including an excellent coastal outcrop, and a study of some representative cored borehole sections (Michael Stephens).

This document has been prepared during September 2007 by Michael Stephens and Carl-Henric Wahlgren (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden), Jussi Mattila (Posiva Oy, Finland) and Seppo Paulamäki (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland). Contact person is Michael Stephens, Geological Survey of Sweden, Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala, Sweden. Tel. +4670-2228853 or +4618-179311. E-mail address,
michael.stephens@sgu.se.